➤ Computer Generation
➤ First Generation
➤ Second Generation
➤ Third Generation
➤ Fourth Generation
➤ Fifth Generation
➤ Basic of Programming
➤ Computer Systems
➤ Virtual Machine
➤ Advantages of Open Source Software
➤ Open Source Software Advantages and Disadvantages
➤ Applications of Computer in Business
Most Used Programming Languages | Today, computers have entered almost every industry. If you’re trying to advance in your career or change careers completely and need to master a programming language, you might wonder which one to learn.
Learn the right programming language today, and it will open up doors of opportunity—putting you right in the middle of exciting fields such as web development, software development, app development, mobile development, game development, and more. Our future will be shaped by many emerging technologies, and these new technologies all run on various programming languages.
C is a general-purpose, middle-level, compiler-based, and procedure or function-oriented structured programming language. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972 at Bell Laboratories. C evolved from three previous languages ALGOL, BCPAL, and B. C uses many of the important concepts of these three languages.
Features of C Programming
- Efficiently work
- Dynamic memory allocation
- Predefined library
Application of C Programming
- Operating System. Example:- Window, Linux, Unix
- Editors. Example:- Notepad, Wordpad, Ms-word
- Data-base. Example:- Oracle, My SQL, SQL Server
- Translators. Example:- Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler
- Commercial applications. Example:- Hotel, Shop, and Hospital programs
- Device Drivers. Example:- Audio/Video/Printer drivers
- Mobile and PC games e.t.c.
You will get a deep knowledge of the C language. Just follow all these C tutorials and practice C programming examples for logical questions, after that you will have a strong base on the C programming language.
Python is one of the most commonly used programming languages today. It is a general-purpose high-level programming language. Guido van Rossum developed python in 1989 but officially made python available to the public in 1991. It’s a great first language because it’s concise and easy to read.
Python is dynamically typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly, procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. Python’s design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant indentation.
Python also has packages such as NumPy and SciPy that are commonly used in the fields of scientific computing, mathematics, and engineering. Popular websites like YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, and Quora are also built on Python.
Features of Python Programming
- Simply and easy to learn
- Freeware and Open source
- Platform Independent
- High-level programming language
- Extensive Library
Application of Python Programming
- Machine learning
- Artificial intelligence
- Data science
- Web Application
- Desktop Application
- Database Applications
- For Networking Application
- Iot Applications
- Back end development
- Image processing
- Scientific and Numeric applications
- Financial services
- Computer vision
- Object-oriented programming language
- Weakly typed language
- Built-in execution
- Back-end Data Loading
- Manipulating HTML Pages
- Client-side validation
- Server Applications
- Mobile app development
- Desktop app development
- Game development
- Software development
- User Notifications
Java is a simple, high-level programming language. It’s one of the most popular and widely used programming languages, platforms, and technology. Java is not only a language it is also a platform and technology. Java is a programming language because it provides its own syntaxes and semantics for developing new programs.
Java was developed by SUN microsystems, Inc. (Sun for short) for developing internet-based, high-performance, distributed, dynamically extensible applications. Oracle Corporation acquired Sun microsystems on January 27, 2010; Now, Java is owned by Oracle Corporation. Java was invented by James Gosling. He, with his team of 11 members, invented the Java language in SUN microsystems.
Features of Java Programming
Java came into the market with the main 10 following features.
- Architectural natural
- High performance
- Dynamic natural
- Byte coded
- Garbage collector
- Open Source
Applications of Java Programming
Java is used from desktop to web applications, scientific supercomputers to gaming consoles, cell phones to the internet. Java is used in every nook and corner. We use Java for developing different types of applications given below.
- Desktop applications. Example:- Calculator, Trader Console
- Web servers and applications servers
- Enterprise applications. Example:- bank applications.
- Mobile applications. Example:- Android apps
- Interoperable applications. Example:- Facebook
- Robotics application
- Gaming applications
- Database connections like Oracle database e.t.c.
You will get a deep knowledge of Java. Just follow all these Java tutorials and practice Java programming examples for logical questions, after that you will have a strong base on Java programming language.
C++ (C Plus Plus)
C++ is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. C++ runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX.
C++ supports at least seven different styles of programming. Developers can choose any of the styles. After learning C++, it will be much easier to learn other programming languages like Java, Python, etc. Over time, programmers have written a large set of libraries and compilers for C++.
C++ helps you to understand the internal architecture of a computer, how a computer stores and retrieves information. C++ has many uses and is the language behind everything from computer games to mathematical simulations.
Features of C++ Programming
- Multi-paradigm Language
- General-Purpose Language
- Better performance
Applications of C++ Programming
- Application Software Development
- Programming Languages Development
- Games Development
- Computation Programming
- Operating Systems
- Embedded System
- Desktop apps
The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is a programming language that allows web developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. PHP is a general-purpose scripting language, it was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP is basically used for developing web-based software applications.
PHP started out as a small open source project that evolved as more and more people found out how useful it was. It is a server-side scripting language that is embedded in HTML. It is integrated with a number of popular databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, Sybase, Informix, and Microsoft SQL Server. It is used to manage dynamic content, databases, session tracking, and even build entire e-commerce sites. PHP is the code running content-oriented websites such as Facebook, WordPress, and Wikipedia.
Go, or Golang is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. It is an open-source programming language. The designers of Go wanted developers to have a programming language that made it quick and easy to develop applications. Go is used on servers, web development, and even command-line interfaces.
Go is expressive, concise, clean, and efficient. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel type system enables flexible and modular program construction. Go compiles quickly to machine code yet has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. It’s a fast, statically typed, compiled language that feels like a dynamically typed, interpreted language. In addition to Google, companies using Go for certain applications include Netflix, Twitch, and Uber.
Kotlin is a statically typed, general-purpose programming language developed by JetBrains, that has built world-class IDEs like IntelliJ IDEA, PhpStorm, App code, etc. Kotlin is designed to interoperate fully with Java, and the JVM version of Kotlin’s standard library depends on the Java Class Library, but type inference allows its syntax to be more concise. It was first introduced by JetBrains in 2011. In 2017, Google announced Kotlin as an official language for android development.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. and the open-source community. First released in 2014, it is a powerful and intuitive programming language for iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. Writing Swift code is interactive and fun, the syntax is concise yet expressive, and Swift includes modern features developers love. Swift code is safe by design, yet also produces software that runs lightning-fast.
Swift is friendly to new programmers. It’s an industrial-quality programming language that’s as expressive and enjoyable as a scripting language. Swift is a fantastic way to write software, whether it’s for phones, desktops, servers, or anything else that runs code. It’s a safe, fast, and interactive programming language that combines the best in modern language thinking with wisdom from the wider Apple engineering culture and the diverse contributions from its open-source community. It is also used in server applications that provide safety and high performance.
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. It was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, and is currently developed by the R Development Core Team.
The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. It is freely available under the GNU General Public License, and pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems like Linux, Windows, and Mac. Many large companies have adopted R in order to analyze their massive data sets, so programmers who know R are in great demand.
C# is a simple, general-purpose, modern and object-oriented programming language pronounced as “C Sharp”. It was developed by Microsoft led by Anders Hejlsberg and his team within the .NET initiative and was approved by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) and International Standards Organization (ISO).
It is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing static typing, strong typing, lexically scoped, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, and component-oriented programming disciplines. We can develop different types of secured and robust applications: Window applications, Web applications, Distributed applications, Web service applications, Database applications, etc.
Ruby is an interpreted, general-purpose, high-level programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto in Japan. It is a pure object-oriented programming language. Ruby has features that are similar to those of Smalltalk, Perl, and Python. Perl, Python, and Smalltalk are scripting languages.
A dynamic, open-source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write. It runs on a variety of platforms, such as Windows, Mac OS, and the various versions of UNIX.
SQL is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). SQL stands for Structured Query Language.
SQL is just a query language; it is not a database. To perform SQL queries, you need to install any database, for example, Oracle, MySQL, MongoDB, PostGre SQL, SQL Server, DB2, etc. It is a standard language for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data in databases.
Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language designed for performance and safety, especially safe concurrency. It is a system programming language developed by a Mozilla employee “Graydon Hoare” in 2006, with contributions from Dave Herman, Brendan Eich, and others. The designers refined the language while writing the Servo layout or browser engine, and the Rust compiler.
Rust is blazingly fast and memory-efficient: with no runtime or garbage collector, it can power performance-critical services, run on embedded devices, and easily integrate with other languages. It is free and open-source software. Rust guarantees memory safety without using the garbage collector. By avoiding garbage collectors, Rust offers numerous benefits such as cleanup of resources and no overhead of memory management.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a proprietary multi-paradigm programming language and numeric computing environment developed by MathWorks. It is a fourth-generation high-level programming language and interactive environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. MATLAB was first released as a commercial product in 1984 at the Automatic Control Conference in Las Vegas. It started out as a matrix programming language where linear algebra programming was simple.
MATLAB provides a vast library of mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier analysis, filtering, optimization, numerical integration, and solving ordinary differential equations. It is used in a range of applications including − Signal Processing and Communications, Image and Video Processing, Control Systems, Test and Measurement, Computational Finance, Computational Biology, etc.
Scala is a general-purpose, high-level, multi-paradigm programming language. Scala stands for Scalable language. It is a pure object-oriented programming language which also provides support to the functional programming approach. Scala has been created by Martin Odersky and he released the first version in 2003.
Perl is a general-purpose, high-level interpreted, and dynamic programming language. It supports both procedural and Object-Oriented programming. Perl gets most of its features from C, including variables, expressions, statements, control structures, and subroutines.
Perl is a programming language that was originally developed for script manipulation. But now it is used for a variety of purposes including web development, GUI development, system administration, and many more. It is a stable, cross-platform programming language.
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