Size and Range of Data Types in C

Size and Range of data types in C. The size is calculated using sizeof(). The range of data types can be found by manually or using <limits.h> and <float.h>

The size of data types in C is dependent on the compiler or you can say that the system architecture i.e. 32-bit compiler or 64-bit compiler. The size of data type int is 2 byte in 32-bit architecture or 4 bytes in 64-bit architecture.

Another factor on which the size of data type depends is the compiler on which you perform any program i.e. In turbo c/c++ the size of int is 2 bytes but in the compiler like code blocks, dev c/c++ e.t.c is 4 bytes.

For finding the size we need a sizeof() function defined under stdio.h. sizeof() function find the size in bytes. 0 or 1 takes 1 bit space. 1 byte = 8 bits . Using sizeof() we can find size of data-types or a variable also.

C Program to Find Size of Data Types

#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
   printf("Size of short is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(short));
   printf("Size of int is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(int));
   printf("Size of long is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(long));

   printf("Size of float is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(float));
   printf("Size of double is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(double));
   printf("Size of long double is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(long double));

   printf("Size of char is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(char));
   printf("Size of void is %ld bytes\n",sizeof(void));
   return 0;
}

Output:-

Size of short is 2 bytes
Size of int is 4 bytes
Size of long is 8 bytes
Size of float is 4 bytes
Size of double is 8 bytes
Size of long double is 16 bytes
Size of char is 1 byte
Size of void is 1 byte

Note:- Sizes of unsigned and signed data types are the same.

Size of a Variable

In a similar way, we can also find the size of any variables. The size of a variable completely depends on the data type of variable. If a variable is of data type int then the size of the variable will be 2 or 4 bytes ( Because the size of int is 2 or 4 bytes).

#include<stdio.h>
int main()
 {
     int x = 10;
     char c;
     printf("Size of variable x = %ld bytes\n",sizeof(x));
     printf("Size of variable c = %ld byte\n",sizeof(c));
     return 0;
 }

Output:-

Size of variable x = 4 bytes
Size of variable c = 1 byte

Size of Structure data type

#include<stdio.h>
struct employee
{
   int number;
   char name[20];
   float salary;
};

int main()
{
   struct employee x;

   //Calculate size using variable name
   printf("Size of employee: %ld\n",sizeof(x));

   //Calculate size using data type
   printf("Size of employee: %ld\n",sizeof(struct employee));
   return 0;
}

Output:-

Size of employee: 28
Size of employee: 28

To store more than one primitive data types, Structure (user defined data type) was introduced. In above example, struct employee is a data type. As int is a data type, similarly struct employee is also a data type. Notice that struct alone or employee alone is not a data type.

Whenever we write int than it does not allocate memory because it is only a data-type. Similarly, happens with struct employee. When we write, struct employee x (where x is a variable) then it allocates memory.

Primitive data type of number is int, so, it will hold 4 bytes. name[20] is char of array [20], so it will hold 20*1 = 20 bytes (1 char holds 1 bytes), and salary is of float data type. Hence it holds 4 bytes. finally 4+20+4 = 28 bytes.

One variable x holds 28 bytes. If 2 varibles will be present than it will hold 28*2 bytes i.e (28* number of variables).

Range of Data types <limits.h> and <float.h> in C

To find the limit of primitive data types we need <limits.h>. In unsigned, the minimum value is not present because in unsigned, limits start with zero which can be remembered easily. The system file limits.h available in C-Compliant compilers contains the upper and lower limits of integer types. The user may include before main().

C Program to Find Range of Data Types

#include<stdio.h>
#include<limits.h>
int main()
{
   printf("The number of bits in a byte = %d\n", CHAR_BIT);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of Signed CHAR is = %d\n", SCHAR_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of Signed CHAR is = %d\n", SCHAR_MAX);
   printf("The minimum value of CHAR is = %d\n", CHAR_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of CHAR is = %d\n", CHAR_MAX);
   printf("The maximum value of Unsigned CHAR is = %u\n", UCHAR_MAX);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of Signed Short is = %d\n", SHRT_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of Signed Short is = %d\n", SHRT_MAX);
   printf("The maximum value of Unsigned Short is = %u\n", USHRT_MAX);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of Signed INT is = %d\n", INT_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of Signed INT is = %d\n", INT_MAX);
   printf("The maximum value of Unsigned INT is = %u\n", UINT_MAX);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of Signed LONG is = %ld\n", LONG_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of Signed LONG is = %ld\n", LONG_MAX);
   printf("The maximum value of Unsigned LONG is = %lu\n", ULONG_MAX);

   return 0;
}

Output:-

The number of bits in a byte = 8

The minimum value of Signed CHAR is = -128
The maximum value of Signed CHAR is = 127
The minimum value of CHAR is = -128
The maximum value of CHAR is = 127
The maximum value of Unsigned CHAR is = 255

The minimum value of Signed Short is = -32768
The maximum value of Signed Short is = 32767
The maximum value of Unsigned Short is = 65535

The minimum value of Signed INT is = -2147483648
The maximum value of Signed INT is = 2147483647
The maximum value of Unsigned INT is = 4294967295

The minimum value of Signed LONG is = -9223372036854775808
The maximum value of Signed LONG is = 9223372036854775807
The maximum value of Unsigned LONG is = 18446744073709551615

Table

Data TypeConstantValue
Signed charSCHAR_MIN
SCHAR_MAX
-128
127
charCHAR_MIN
CHAR_MAX
-128
127
Unsigned charUCHAR_MAX255
Short intSHRT_MIN
SHRT_MAX
-32768
32767
Unsigned short intUSHRT_MAX65535
intINT_MIN
INT_MAX
-2147483648
2147483647
Unsigned intUINT_MAX4294967295
Long intLONG_MIN
LONG_MAX
-9223372036854775808
9223372036854775807
Unsigned long intULONG_MAX18446744073709551615

The following are the constants defined in the header file <float.h>

Data TypeConstant
floatFLT_MIN
FLT_MAX
doubleDBL_MIN
DBL_MAX
long doubleLDBL_MIN
LDBL_MAX
#include<stdio.h>
#include<float.h>
int main()
 {
   printf("The minimum value of float is = %.10e\n", FLT_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of float is = %.10e\n", FLT_MAX);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of Double is = %.10e\n", DBL_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of Double is = %.10e\n", DBL_MAX);

   printf("\nThe minimum value of LONG Double is = %.10Le\n",LDBL_MIN);
   printf("The maximum value of LONG Double is = %.10Le\n",LDBL_MAX);

   return 0;
 }

Output:-

The minimum value of float is = 1.1754943508e-38
The maximum value of float is = 3.4028234664e+38

The minimum value of Double is = 2.2250738585e-308
The maximum value of Double is = 1.7976931349e+308

The minimum value of LONG Double is = 3.3621031431e-4932
The maximum value of LONG Double is = 1.1897314954e+4932

The size of data types in C depends on the compiler, and the range also depends on the compiler.

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